Introduction to the Practical Technology of Vegetarian Meat Products
The method extracts and separates the protein from vegetable protein raw materials such as low-denatured defatted soybeans, dissolves it in alkali, and then squeezes it into the acid coagulation liquid through a perforated plate and a nozzle to make it coagulate to obtain protein fibers, which are adjusted to Weak acidity and neutrality, then disperse into water, heat treatment in water with microwave, or adjust pH, directly dehydrate after washing to obtain protein fiber, and then evenly mix with binder, seasoning, etc., and finally heat treatment with microwave. Overcome the shortcomings of general vegetarian food.
The microwave heat treatment can also be performed by high frequency heat treatment or high frequency medium heat treatment. If the above-mentioned fibrous vegetable protein or artificial meat products are treated with medium heating, the product quality can be improved very well. In the heating process, both methods can also be used. The conditions for the microwave heating treatment are microwaves of 300 to 3000 MHz, 0.5 to 100 kilowatts, and a heating treatment of 1 to 20 minutes is appropriate. The appropriate frequency, wattage, and time are mainly selected according to the purpose, object, processing method, etc.
Production method Separating and refining proteins from low-denatured defatted soybeans to obtain soybean protein curds, and adding alkali to the inside to make the pH value reach 10-13, and the concentration is about 11-13%. The protein solution with viscosity is then extruded into an acidic solution with a pH below about 4.5 by a multi-hole plate or a nozzle, and then spun to obtain acid-coagulated protein fibers. Finally, it is adjusted to a weak acid or neutral with a pH of about 5 to 7, and it is fully washed and dehydrated. The water content of the edible protein fiber prepared in this way is about 70%, and it can also be dried to an appropriate water content according to different uses, and used as the main raw material of artificial meat.
After neutralization and washing, the protein fibers can also be uniformly dispersed in water, heated with microwaves in the water, dehydrated, and prepared into fibrous edible protein. According to different uses, add appropriate binders or seasonings and mix evenly, then extend to an appropriate thickness, shape, microwave heat treatment, and after cooling, appropriately cut and shape.
The binders used include protein, wheat flour, starch, and raw fish protein, which have to be properly heated and solidified; seasonings include salt, sugar, natural extracts, hydrolyzates of vegetable proteins, spicy seasonings, colorants, oils, etc. Use it appropriately for different purposes. Other food additives and natural extracts can also be used according to the application. The compounding weight ratio of these additives and the main raw material fibrous edible protein is preferably 1:0.5 or 1:3.
The method can be simple, inexpensive, and can continuously manufacture a large amount of meat with good meat texture, especially because of the addition of oil, it has good shape retention. The aroma or color obtained during manufacture will not be malignant, and the food taste is especially like natural meat, which can obviously remove or reduce the beany smell and improve the food quality.
10kg of low-denatured defatted soybeans and 100kg of water. Stir at 40°C for 1 hour, extract soybean protein, remove insoluble components by centrifugation, add hydrochloric acid, adjust pH to 4.5 to precipitate protein, and then centrifuge to obtain soybean protein gel with a water content of about 70%. Add water to make it disperse, add caustic soda solution, adjust pH to 11.5, and obtain alkaline hydrolyzed glue solution. The alkaline hydrolyzed glue solution is extruded into the acid coagulation solution with a 0.1 mm perforated plate, coagulated and spun, and then the alkaline solution is added to adjust the pH to 5, and then add 200 kg of water. 70% Edible Protein Fiber 11kg.
In addition, 15 parts by weight of dry protein, 4 parts of salt, 10 parts of skimmed milk powder, 10 parts of salad oil, and 60 parts of water are evenly mixed to obtain an emulsion, which is mixed with the above-mentioned protein fiber in a ratio of 1 to 1. The weight ratio is uniformly mixed. The resulting mixture was stretched to a thickness of 3 cm and formed by heating at 2450 MHz at 650 W for 90 s.
In addition, as a control, the above-mentioned mixture of edible protein fiber and emulsion was filled and sealed in a vinylidene chloride packaging tube (reduced diameter 45 mm), and heated in boiling water at 100° C. for 50 minutes. Another control was heat-formed using a jacketed helical heater.
The artificial meat obtained by this method is the best, with less beany flavor, less astringency, easy chewing and good quality.
The edible soybean protein fiber containing 70% of moisture obtained from Example 1 was added with 10 times the amount (weight) of water, mixed uniformly, and then heated for 5 minutes with a microwave of 2450 MHz, 650 watts. As a control, the same mixture was boiled at 100°C for 5 minutes. The other control was not heat treated at all. The artificial meat obtained by this method is the best, with less beany flavor, less astringency, easy chewing and good quality.
1 kg of edible soybean protein fiber with a moisture content of about 70% produced according to the standard of Example 1, cut into 3 cm long, and additionally used 150 grams of dry protein, 80 grams of salt, 150 grams of sugar, 30 grams of vegetable protein hydrolyzate and seasonings , 60 grams of the mixture of spicy seasonings, 3 grams of food coloring, 150 grams of vegetable oil, and 377 grams of water are evenly mixed to form a 1 kg emulsion, which is evenly mixed with the above-mentioned edible protein fiber, and the obtained mixture Stretch to 3 cm thick and heat in a microwave at 2450 MHz, 650 watts for 2 minutes. After cooling, cut into slices about 2 cm thick and 10 cm squares. The ham-like food was obtained, and the flavor and texture were very good.
Obtain 1 kg of edible soybean protein fiber containing about 70% moisture from Example 1, cut it into 3 cm long, put it in 10 kg of water and evenly disperse it, use 2450 MHz microwave, 650 watts, heat for 5 minutes, and then dehydrate to about 70 % moisture or dehydrated to 1 kg to obtain heat-treated edible protein fiber. In addition, 150 grams of egg whites, 40 grams of salt, 100 grams of sugar, 100 grams of gravy, 60 grams of seasoning and spicy seasoning mixture, 10 grams of toffee, 150 grams of lard, and 390 grams of water were mixed evenly to obtain 1 kilogram of opalescence. Mix evenly with the above edible protein fiber, then cut 500 grams of pig back fat into 1 cm cubes, add and mix evenly, and then extend it to a thickness of 5 cm, use a 2450 MHz microwave, 650 watts, and heat for 3 minutes. After cooling, cut into slices about 3 mm thick. The obtained roast pork-flavored food was properly mixed with lard, and the flavor and texture were very good.
1 kg of edible soybean protein fiber containing about 70% moisture produced according to Example 1 makes the fiber directional. In addition, use 100 grams of egg whites, 20 grams of salt, 50 grams of sugar, 20 grams of vegetable protein hydrolyzates, 40 grams of seasonings and a mixture of spicy seasonings, 100 grams of chicken oil, and 270 grams of water, mix them evenly, and prepare 600 grams of milk. The turbid liquid is evenly mixed with the above-mentioned edible protein fibers, so that the fibers are in one direction, stretched to a thickness of 3 cm, heated for 2 minutes with a 91.5 MHz microwave at 1000 watts, cooled, and cut into appropriate sizes. The obtained simulated chicken food fiber has a certain direction, and the flavor and taste are good.