The function of textured soy protein and its application in meat products
Abstract: Soy Textured protein can not only increase the protein content of the product, reduce the content of animal fat and cholesterol, prevent the tissue from being damaged by high temperature heating or mechanical action, and lose the touch of the meat, but also can reduce the cost of the product. It is the raw material that modern food processing plants should choose to replace meat.
Keywords: Textured soy protein, meat products, application, function
Because of the high protein content of textured soy protein, it has the characteristics of emulsification, oil absorption, water absorption, gelation and adhesion. The tissue protein uses these functional properties to improve the quality of meat products. It can not only be added to meat products, but also can be made into a series of products such as simulated nutritious meat.
1. The concept of textured soy protein
(1) Textured soy protein (Penghua protein), also known as vegetable protein meat, is a variety of shapes made by using soybean defatted protein powder as raw material, crushed, mixed with water, and specially processed in special Penghua equipment. It is a protein food with the same lean meat and chewy feeling.
(2) The so-called textured protein protein means that after soybean is processed, its protein is denatured, and the protein molecules are rearranged and oriented to form a new tissue structure with the same direction. At the same time, it forms fibrous protein after coagulation.
2. The method of soy protein organization
There are many ways to organize soy protein, such as spinning method, squeezing cooking method, wet heating method, freezing method and gelatinization method.
(1) The spinning method is a method of mixing with lye, dissolving the alkali, extending and heating to shape, and finally becoming a fiber;
(2) The extrusion cooking method refers to the method of adding water, heating, and extruding into a granular product;
(3) Wet heating method refers to mixing with acid solution, cutting at high temperature, heating and fixing the structured product;
(4) Freezing method refers to the method of adding water, heating, freezing and concentrating, freezing and forming, and forming a sponge-like product;
(5) Gelation method refers to the method of adding water, heating, high-concentration heating, and forming after heating. The most widely used of these methods is the extrusion cooking method.
3. The functional characteristics of textured soy protein
3.1 Structural characteristics of textured soy protein
(1) The structure of the textured proteinn is granular, has a multiply fleshy tissue, and has excellent water retention and chewing feeling.
(2) It has been processed under short-term high temperature, high moisture and pressure conditions to eliminate many harmful substances contained in soybeans, such as trypsinin, urease, saponin, hemagglutinin, etc., and improve protein Absorption and digestion capacity. After heat treatment, the nutritional value of soybean starch has been significantly improved.
(3) Although the extruded protein has strong denaturation and the PID value of the product is about 10, the damage of essential amino acids is very slight (according to the measurement, the statistical loss is 5.5-33).
3.2 Characteristics of Soy Textured Protein
(1) The use of textured soy protein can not only increase the protein content of the product, reduce the content of animal fat and cholesterol, prevent the tissue from being damaged by high temperature heating or mechanical action, and lose the touch of the meat, and it can also reduce the cost of the product. .
(2) The application of textured soy protein in meat products is mainly considering their economy and nutrition, followed by functionality. Economy mainly refers to the lower price of textured soy protein products, and it can replace a part of meat. It can reduce the cost of the product; nutrition refers to the addition of soy protein to meat products, which can increase the protein content of the product, reduce the content of animal fat and cholesterol, and adapt to modern nutritional needs. Functionality refers to the use of soy protein Its emulsification, oil absorption, water absorption, gel and stickiness can improve the quality of meat products.
(3) Textured soy protein is suitable for meat products, simulated nutritious meat, box-type nutritious food and cooking foods of various shapes. When textured soy protein is added, it must be rehydrated and deodorized, that is, soak soybeans in warm water of about 50%. textured protein 30～60min (requires the time for determining the size of the visual block in the 12th issue of 2007). It can also be soaked in room temperature water for several hours, thoroughly rehydrated and rinsed with water for 1 to 2 times, and then dried. Large protein products must be twisted to the specified requirements.
(4) Textured soy protein is not only a substitute for meat in the processing of minced meat products, but also a necessary raw material. In addition, due to its good water absorption and oil absorption, it can reduce processing loss and greasy feeling. Adding appropriate amount of textured protein to foods such as pie, meat buns, dumplings, etc. can replace some chicken, beef, etc., without compromising the nutrition and palatability of the food. Some textured soy proteins are colored and processed into similar beef, chicken, and ham. Imitations such as bacon and fish have already gone to the market.
4. The basic use method of textured soy protein
(1) The ratio and method of adding textured protein in dumpling filling and enema. The addition amount of textured protein in meat filling accounts for 15%-20 (wet basis) of meat, that is, adding 15-20kg tissue protein to 100kg meat. If used For vegetarian stuffing, you can use vegetable oil to fry and mix with stuffing for better effect.
(2) When adding, take a certain amount of textured protein (dry basis), soak it in warm water (50～70) for 20～30rain, remove it, and then rinse it with water once and spin dry to get the wet basis. After the above treatment, Each kilogram of textured protein (dry basis) is rehydrated to obtain a wet basis of 2.5~2.9kg. If small particles of textured protein are used, in order to prevent the loss of small particles with water, use filter cloth to wrap the tissue protein during spin-drying. After the above The processed tissue protein (wet basis) (such as large grains or large pieces needs to be minced in a chopper or meat grinder) and the ground meat filling are placed in the filling machine at the same time, and seasoning, salt, water and other auxiliary materials are added together Just mix well.
(3) How to use tissue protein in vegetarian food. Directly use tissue protein to make vegetarian food. Use strip or large piece of tissue protein, soak in warm water (50-70) for 20-30rains, rinse with water for 1 to 2 times and spin dry After processing, add broth to soak, add salt and different seasonings and mix well to make vegetarian snacks with different flavors. Application in vegetarian meatballs and vegetarian meat floss. Soak the tissue protein (dry basis) in warm water (50～70) for 20-30rains, and then rinse with water for 1 to 2 times to dry the wet basis and use it.
5. Application of soybean tissue protein in high temperature beef sausage
5.1 Technological process of high temperature beef sausage. Auxiliary materials, water, vacuum chopping, filling, high temperature killing, tissue protein (wet basis), 34, 2007, No. 12, total 320 bacteria, cooling, packaging and warehousing.
5.2 Process points
5.2.1 Rehydration of tissue protein (dry basis) Put 2 kg of dry tissue protein in a large bucket, and then add 10 kg of warm water to the bucket, soak for 30 minutes, remove it and put it in a cloth bag, and use a spin dryer to spin dry. The wet base weight of the dried tissue protein should be controlled within 5 to 5.8kg, so that it is a qualified tissue protein for rehydration.
5.2.2 Vacuum chopping, first pour the selected beef into the chopping machine, then add an appropriate amount of ice water, chop it into a mashed meat shape, then add the tissue protein to continue chopping, chopping at high speed for half a minute and then slow down. Add the auxiliary materials and the remaining ice water slowly into the chopper and continue to chopping at high speed until the meat is even and elastic.
5.2.3 Filling, high-temperature sterilization and filling are automatically filled with a high-temperature sausage machine, and the weight of each intestine is 80g. The sterilization is 121 high-temperature sterilization, and the time is 30 minutes. The beef sausage produced in this way is elastic, good in structure, and crispy. Tender and meaty.
Textured soy protein has been widely used in various meat products. It can not only replace part of the meat, but also has low price and high protein content. Consumers can rest assured to eat. Because of its low cost, the meat product industry R&D personnel should seriously consider its true use value. The application prospects of soybean tissue protein are very wide, and further development and exploration by the majority of researchers are needed in the future.