What are the benefits of using textured vegetable protein in food?
Abstract: Texture vegetable protein is rich in nutrition, not only high in protein content, but also rich in eight essential amino acids required by the human body. The amino acid composition of its protein is incomparable to other proteins, and is an ideal vegetable protein. Its protein digestion and absorption rate is good, which is very similar to meat, but it will not cause obesity, cardiovascular disease, high cholesterol and other diseases like meat diet, and has obvious health care effects. And it is rich in calcium, phosphorus, iron and multiple vitamins, especially the B vitamins are relatively high; it also contains essential potassium, sodium and other inorganic salts and trace elements, so it is more and more popular. There are many types of soy protein, including deodorized soy protein powder, defatted soy protein powder, soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate, soy textured protein, etc. They have their own emphasis on functionality and price due to different processing techniques.
The defatted soybeans are extruded and expanded into tissue protein. The tissue protein has strong water and oil absorption, and is similar to the fibrous tissue of lean meat. After rehydration, it has a certain degree of elasticity, toughness and chewing feeling; nutrition after processing The composition and form remain basically unchanged, and the price is low. Therefore, considering the use of soy tissue protein to replace part of the meat to make food is a new way to reduce production costs and improve product nutrition.
Keywords: Textured vegetable protein, food, application, advantages
1. Production principle and preparation process of textured vegetable protein
1.1 The production principle of textured vegetable protein
Add low-temperature defatted soybean meal, high-temperature defatted soybean meal, cold-pressed soybean meal, concentrated protein, isolated protein and other raw materials into a certain amount of water and additives, and mix them evenly, by mechanical or chemical methods, forcibly heating, pressurizing, and extruding. Change the arrangement of protein molecules to produce a tissue structure in the same direction, and at the same time coagulate to form fibrous protein or TVP. The protein in the raw material can be undenatured or denatured. In the extruder, after the protein is pretreated, under the action of high temperature, high pressure, and strong shearing force, the protein is denatured, the highly regular spatial arrangement inside the molecule changes, the secondary bonds in the protein molecule are destroyed, and the peptide bond structure Loose, and then form relatively linear protein molecular chains. These relatively linear protein molecular chains become more free at a certain temperature and moisture content, so that directional recombination is more likely to occur. In the process of protein denaturation, Affected by the directional force, the protein molecules are arranged linearly and organized along the flow direction, and further solidify to form a fleshy fiber structure. Finally, the temperature and pressure are drastically changed through the mold to produce a certain expansion to form a porous TVP.
1.2 Main production process requirements
(1 Selection of raw materials: raw materials have a greater impact on the expansion technology, so the selection of raw materials is very important. Generally, the protein content of the raw materials is greater than 50%, the fat content is less than 1.5%, the fiber content is less than 3.5%, the moisture content is less than 10%, and nitrogen The solubility coefficient (NSI) is about 60%.
(2 PH value adjustment: The pH value of the raw material should be around 7.0. When the pH value is lower than 5, the degree of organization will drop sharply, and it will not even puff; as the pH value rises, the product will be slightly alkaline. The quality of the organization is better, and the shape is neat. When the PH value is above 8, the product becomes brittle and hard, and produces peculiar smell and toxic substances, and the color is poor.
(3 Temperature: temperature and material-water ratio temperature is 190℃, material-water ratio is 20:13～15, the water absorption rate is the largest, the shear force is the largest, the higher the water absorption rate, the higher the elasticity and toughness of TVP; shear The greater the force, the better the degree of organization, and the better the product forming, the bright yellow color is uniform.
2. Textured vegetable protein composition and physical and chemical indicators
The appearance is light yellow or yellow-brown, the surface color is uniform, block or granular, no bitterness, no hardness, elasticity, water absorption and oil absorption, porous sponge shape, etc., slightly bey, swelling after absorbing water On the surface of the water, it does not fall apart and has a fibrous tissue structure similar to lean meat. Its main components and physical and chemical indexes are shown in Table 1.
3. The application of textured vegetable protein in the food industry
3.1 Application in meat products: TVP has good water absorption and oil retention. When added to meat products, it can increase the color, aroma, taste and protein content of meat products, and can promote the integrity of the particles and improve the yield rate. Therefore, it is an ideal meat product additive, and it can be added to meat products to reduce the amount of lean meat added. For example, in the meat sausage, adding TVP within 15% of the meat weight can maintain the appearance and quality of the product; in the meatballs, adding TVP within 20% of the meat weight, the taste and taste are better than pure meatballs; in pie Adding TVP within 30% of the meat weight to the dumpling filling can improve the quality and flavor, which not only reduces the production cost, but also increases the protein content.
3.2 Application in convenience foods: TVP has the characteristics of imitating meat texture, which can be made into convenience foods with various flavors. The silky and flaky protein products are directly used to make vegetarian imitation meat foods, lumps and small particles. Various stuffing foods can be made, which not only satisfies the senses, but also provides a high-quality protein source. It can be eaten after soaking in hot water, and can be used as breakfast and lunch for school-age children.
3.3 Application in dishes: TVP undergoes hydration in production, has uniform tissue characteristics and specific tissue structure, and has good chewiness and meat texture. It is suitable for frying, frying, cooking, frying, soup, filling, It can be cold. In minced meat or other meat products, add 25-50% tissue protein and mix with various seasonings to make dishes that have the taste of meat. Therefore, it can be used to partially replace meat. Textured vegetable protein is a real high-quality and cheap food .
3.4 Application in leisure food: The tissue protein has a good granular structure. After processing, it can be made into various flavors of dried meat, preserves, vegetarian food, etc. During the process of processing the tissue protein, different flavors can be seasoned. Adding the agent to leisure foods can produce leisure foods with different flavors, rich nutrition and excellent taste.
3.5 Application in nutritional health food: TVP is not only high in nutritional value, but also an excellent health food, suitable for all ages. It is an auxiliary curative food for patients suffering from cardiovascular disease, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, hepatitis, nephritis, and obesity.
4. Summary of the benefits of textured vegetable protein
In summary, TVP has rich nutritional value, natural physiological health functions, excellent production and processing characteristics, and extensive economic benefits. It is a very promising functional food material. Moreover, my country’s current animal protein resources are lacking. The intake is generally lower than the level required to maintain human health every day, and new protein sources are urgently needed to make up for this deficiency. my country is rich in soybean resources. Soy food is the inevitable trend of food development in the future and has broad market prospects.