Production technology and technical requirements of soybean tissue protein
Textured soy protein is also known as plant meat. Its raw material is defatted soybean meal (also known as white soybean flakes), and its main ingredients are protein (more than 50%) and carbohydrates. Soy protein does not contain cholesterol, has low sugar content, high digestibility, and is rich in a variety of amino acids necessary for the human body. It is an ideal complete protein.
1. The production process of soybean tissue protein
After being ground by a turbine mill, the white bean flakes enter the mixing cylinder to fully mix with steam and water, and then enter the extruder to suddenly release through the mold under high temperature and high pressure, so as to obtain the reorganized protein (small grains of soy protein after wet milling. Cut), and then enter the drying cooler to dry and cool, and package it into a soybean tissue protein product.
2. Production process principle of soybean tissue protein
White bean flakes with proper moisture will become defatted protein powder after grinding. Its natural undenatured protein molecules will be denatured under the action of temperature and pressure. The highly regular spatial arrangement inside the molecule is disrupted, and the secondary chain is destroyed. The peptide chain structure is loose and easy to stretch.Due to the action of the directional force, the protein molecule undergoes a certain particle size directional arrangement and organization, and further solidifies while being denatured. The fleshy fiber structure is formed, and finally the temperature and pressure are suddenly changed through the mold to produce a certain puffing, and the porous tissue protein is obtained.
3. Product standard of soy textured protein
The product standard of soy tissue protein is: protein (dry basis) N×6.25≥50%, fat≤1.5%, crude fiber≤5%, moisture 8%~12%, bulk density≤350g/L, froth rate <5% , The rehydration ratio is 1: (2.5~3), which meets the food hygiene standards. The appearance is light yellow or yellowish brown, no bitterness, no mildew, sponge-like, lumpy or granular, slightly bean flavor, can float on the water after absorbing water, not scattered, and has a lean-like shape Fibrous tissue, soft mouthfeel after blister, fine tissue.
4. Matters needing attention in the production of soy tissue protein
a. The raw material for the production of tissue protein soy bean flakes should meet the following physical and chemical indicators: protein (dry basis) N×6.25≥50%, fat≤1.5%, moisture≤10%, crude fiber≤5%, NSI≥70%, Ash content ≤6%. The white bean flakes are pulverized into powder by turbine mill and called defatted protein powder. The particle size is required to be 100-325 mesh. When the defatted protein powder is mixed with soda in the mixing tank, the water must be advanced after steam and the mixing must be uniform to prevent materials. After mixing, it becomes a solid state. After the mixed material is loosened in the hand, it is better for the material to become a small ball. Otherwise, the material is too loose or too viscous to affect the puffing effect, and even unable to produce puffing.
b. The mixed material enters the extruder for expansion. The pH value of the raw material should be around 7.0. The higher the pH value, the better the expansion effect, but it cannot exceed 8.5. If the pH value is less than 5.5, the material will not expand. The sugar content of the raw materials is preferably 20%~30%, and the material that is too high will gelatinize quickly in the extruder. The amount of water added to the extruder is generally about 3kg. Too much water is easy to produce spray. The steam pressure should be stabilized at 0.4MPa, and the temperatures of the four heating zones are: 80~90℃ in the first heating zone, 90~100℃ in the second heating zone, 110~120℃ in the third heating zone, and 30~ in the fourth heating zone. 40°C. During the expansion process, it is necessary to prevent the extruder from spraying materials and the product from not forming.
c. During the puffing process, the cutter speed of the puffing machine is specified as: small-grained soybean protein 4.5-6.5 gears, large-grain soybean tissue protein 3.0-4.5 gears. The speed is too fast and the particles are too small, resulting in high foaming rate and affecting product quality.
d. The expanded product can enter the dry cooler. If it is to produce small particles of tissue protein, it must be wet-milled to make it into 4mm small particles. The wet-milled movable knife speed is 2000 rpm, and the static knife outlet gap is 4mm.